Friday, October 18, 2013

Saman Dance : A miracle from the land of rencong (Aceh)

If you witness the art and cultural show in international events, maybe you'll witness traditional dance of Aceh called Saman dance. Saman dance is one of interesting performing art from Indonesia, even Saman dance often staged as Indonesian dance ambassador in various international events.

Why the dance called as Saman dance? the dance called as Saman dance because it's created by a Gayo theologian named Shaykh saman around 14th century, from highland of Gayo. Initially, saman dance was only folk game named as Pok Ane. However, it was added some lyric accompaniment contain praise to Allah SWT and also it was accompanied by combination of claps of the dancers.

Overall, this dance is known as origin dance of Gayo society because of the dance was born in Middle Aceh. Many of modern peoples in Asia, Europe, Australia adopt the harmony and quickness of this dance. However, the authenticity of this dance won't ever be imitated because of the essence of the dance only can be found in Aceh.

In line with condition in Aceh in the wars, the sheikhs added poems that increase morale of people of Aceh. The dance is develop continuously according to its needs. Until now, Samandance is more frequently shown in every religious ceremonial even in state event. The dance at first get less attention because of limitation of communication and information from the outside. The dance start to shake the entertainment stage when its appearance in PKA II (Pekan Kebudayaan Aceh) and inauguration of opening of TMII (Taman Mini Indonesia Indah). The rumble of Saman dance in TMII isn't only electrifying Indonesia but also the world.

Saman dance is one of media for achievement of  Da‘wah message that reflect value of education, religiousness, politeness, heroism, solidarity, and togetherness. Before saman dance begins, there will be an opening or called "mukaddimah", with a wise old man or a indigenous elder to represent the local peoples (keketar) that give poem contains advice and da'wah into the players and visitors.

Here the poems of Saman dance you can read :
Salam a’ salam alaikum jame ba jame baro troh

Tamong jak tamong jak piyoh u ateuh u ateuh tika
Karena salem nabi kan nabi kan sunah jarota
Jarota mumat syarat mu syarat mulia
Mengingat ingat wahe u rakan
Kebudayaan beugout ta jaga
Beugout ta jaga kebudayaan
Bek rhot u dalam budaya luar

Amin Allah sembah amin
Ureng mukmin ke lake lake doa
Berkat rahmat Allah yang bri
Nangro aceh makmur sila sijahtera
Lale lale geut ta mo lale
Hana jan tate umuka tuha
Puteh ngon janggut kuning ngon mise
Hantom ta combe tikamu sala
Aroe pulo pinang di beudah gelombang tujoh
Lam om patah manyang di dalam minyeuk meulaboh
Hili laot pasi doidi tarek pukat
Olon di darat di darat teupeh bak tajak
Lam puteh teleung lou teleung lou di dalam jerat
Mantong teu ingat teu ingat ke guna gata      
Rhet kala rhet meunah meunah
Rhet kala rhet meunah meunah
Cok ampun teuku raja
Si jmpa mirah si ula ka rhet lam ano

Di laot alon meupile , peuraho woe dua dua
Hai rakan lok bek le laloe , budaya droe beuget ta jaga
Ehe..... hum la hili hala babura..... hum la hili hala

Kutiding lahem dinghem (anaa)
Kutiding lahem dinghem lahembot
Botlah tiding lahembot botlah tiding
Haina pute pute , haina pute pute
La pute si bungo pute , la pute sibung pute
Hai lalaba bintang , hai lelaba bintang 
Lama teka ayem mata , lama teka ayem mata (eha’..)
Kutiding lahem dinghem
Kutiding lahem dinghem lahembot
Botlah tiding lahembot botlah tiding

Hayla hotsa , ila lahumbakmeu , ahlun kapaydi , etre lama bure bure hay bacute
Salah lahmun konsa , lahlun salahmu , lahpen awaydi , gatra lam perahu
Layar labu kau , sabang katapang , tiang kamengku , alahal manyone ,
Hose ladingone , saying wahai e , cut bangke mayang mayang sendang hayla hotsa

Beside of sitting position and body motion, hand gesture is very dominant in Saman dance. Because it has a function as a motion and music. Someone call it as "cerkop", both hands are coincide and directional. There is also "Cilok", motion of tip of forefinger that is seemed to take something like light objects (salt or something else). And "tepok" that is done in various position (horizontal / back and forth / or like propeller ). The head movement such as nodding in slow tempo or in fast tempo (anguk) and spinning head like propeller (girek) also several kinds of Saman motion. The diverse of all elements are adding the beauty and harmonism in motion of Saman dance

Because of Saman dance is played without music instruments, then as a retinue, hand and body are used. There are several ways to get those sounds as follow :
1. Pats of both hands. It's usually in medium tempo until fast tempo.
2. Pats of both palms into chest. It's usually in  fast tempo.
3. Pats of a palm into chest. It's usually in medium tempo.
4. Rubbing of a thumb with middle finger (kertip). Usually in medium tempo.

And the song of the dancers adds the dynamism of Saman dance. Where the way to sing the songs in Saman dance divided into 5 ways as follows :
1 Rengum, a roar that is begun by a "Pengangkat"
2 Dering, a regnum that is followed by all dancers.
3 Redet, a short song with short sound that is sung by a dancer in the middle part of the dance.
4 Syek, a song that is sung by a dancer with long and high sound frequency, it usually as a sign of changes in motion.
5 Saur, a song that is repeated together by all dancer after it's sung by solo dancer.

In ordinary show, Saman dance can be played by 10 to 12 dancer, however, the wholeness of Saman dance at least is supported by 15 to 17 dancer that has function as follows : 
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

* Number 9 as "Pengangkat"
"Pengangkat" is the protagonist (sheikh in seudati) as a central point in Saman dance. "Pengangkat" determine dance motion, level of dance, poems that is spoken nor poems as a reply of opponent attacks (called as Saman Jalu in competition)

* Number 8 and 10 as Pengapit
"Pengapit" is a figure who help "Pengangkat" in dance motion nor in sing a song.

* Number 2 to 7 and 11 to 16 as "Penyepit"
"Penyepit" is ordinary dancer that support dance or dance motion that is directed by "Pengangkat". Beside as dancer also "penyepit" has a role to press (menghimpit in Indonesian). So, the density between the dancer always be maintained and then the dancers unite in banjar position (horizontal position) for the wholeness and motion uniformity. 

* Number 1 and17 as "Penupang"
"Penupang" is the dancers in the most left and right side from row dancer who sit horizontally. Beside has a role as a part of dance supporter also has a role to keep the wholeness of dance position. So, penupang also called as "penamat kerpe jejerum". 

In every shows, everything that mentioned above is synergized until it generate an awesome dance motion. So, the power of Saman dance isn't only situated in its poems but the compact motion make it perfect. It can be shown from the obedience of the dancers in playing their own roles.

For all of you who curious with Saman dance and its motion, you can watch "Saman dance" below. Enjoy it :D

Yap, that's all about the function of formation, kind of motion, the origins of musical accompaniment also the song in the show of Saman dance. May be useful for you in understanding Saman dance and Thankyou for your visit :)

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